Handbook of Electric Power Calculations Third Edition By H. Wayne Beaty Book

Handbook of Electric Power Calculations Third Edition By H. Wayne Beaty
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Table of Contents

Other Electrical Power Engineering Books of Interest

PREFACE

BASIC NETWORK ANALYSIS

SERIES-PARALLEL DC NETWORK ANALYSIS

BRANCH-CURRENT ANALYSIS OF A DC NETWORK

MESH ANALYSIS OF A DC NETWORK

NODAL ANALYSIS OF A DC NETWORK

DIRECT-CURRENT NETWORK SOLUTION USING SUPERPOSITION THEOREM

DIRECT-CURRENT NETWORK SOLUTION USING THEVENIN’S THEOREM

DIRECT-CURRENT NETWORK SOLUTION USING NORTON’S THEOREM

BALANCED DC BRIDGE NETWORK

UNBALANCED DC BRIDGE NETWORK

ANALYSIS OF A SINUSOIDAL WAVE

ANALYSIS OF A SQUARE WAVE

ANALYSIS OF AN OFFSET WAVE

CIRCUIT RESPONSE TO A NONSINUSOIDAL INPUT CONSISTING OF A DC VOLTAGE IN A SERIES WITH AN AC VOLTAGE

STEADY-STATE AC ANALYSIS OF A SERIES RLC CIRCUIT

STEADY-STATE AC ANALYSIS OF A PARALLEL RLC CIRCUIT

ANALYSIS OF A SERIES-PARALLEL AC NETWORK

ANALYSIS OF POWER IN AN AC CIRCUIT

ANALYSIS OF POWER FACTOR AND REACTIVE FACTOR

POWER-FACTOR CORRECTION

MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER IN AN AC CIRCUIT

ANALYSIS OF A BALANCED WYE-WYE SYSTEM

ANALYSIS OF A BALANCED DELTA-DELTA SYSTEM

RESPONSE OF AN INTEGRATOR TO A RECTANGULAR PULSE

INSTRUMENTATION

VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT

CURRENT MEASUREMENT

POWER MEASUREMENT USING A SINGLE-PHASE WATTMETER

POWER MEASUREMENT USING A THREE-PHASE WATTMETER

POWER MEASUREMENT ON A FOUR-WIRE LINE

REACTIVE-POWER MEASUREMENT

POWER-FACTOR MEASUREMENT

ELECTRIC PEAK-POWER DEMAND METERING

TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

DC MOTORS AND GENERATORS

DIRECT-CURRENT GENERATOR USED AS TACHOMETER, SPEED/VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT

SEPARATELY EXCITED DC GENERATOR’S RATED CONDITIONS FROM NO-LOAD SATURATION CURVE

TERMINAL CONDITIONS CALCULATED FOR DC COMPOUND GENERATOR

ADDED SERIES FIELD CALCULATED TO PRODUCE FLAT COMPOUNDING IN DC GENERATOR

CALCULATION OF INTERPOLE WINDINGS FOR A DC GENERATOR

DESIGN OF COMPENSATING WINDING FOR DC MACHINE

STATOR AND ARMATURE RESISTANCE CALCULATIONS IN DC SELF-EXCITED GENERATOR

EFFICIENCY CALCULATION FOR DC SHUNT GENERATOR

TORQUE AND EFFICIENCY CALCULATION FOR SEPARATELY EXCITED DC MOTOR

DESIGN OF A MANUAL STARTER FOR A DC SHUNT MOTOR

CONSIDERATION OF DUTY CYCLE USED TO SELECT DC MOTOR

CALCULATION OF ARMATURE REACTION IN DC MOTOR

DYNAMIC BRAKING FOR SEPARATELY EXCITED MOTOR

A THREE-PHASE SCR DRIVE FOR A DC MOTOR

DIRECT-CURRENT SHUNT-MOTOR SPEED DETERMINED FROM ARMATURE CURRENT AND NO-LOAD SATURATION CURVE

CHOPPER DRIVE FOR DC MOTOR

DESIGN OF A COUNTER-EMF AUTOMATIC STARTER FOR A SHUNT MOTOR

TRANSFORMERS

ANALYSIS OF TRANSFORMER TURNS RATIO

ANALYSIS OF A STEP-UP TRANSFORMER

ANALYSIS OF A TRANSFORMER CONNECTED TO A LOAD

SELECTION OF A TRANSFORMER FOR IMPEDANCE MATCHING

PERFORMANCE OF A TRANSFORMER WITH MULTIPLE SECONDARIES

IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION OF A THREE-WINDING TRANSFORMER

SELECTION OF A TRANSFORMER WITH TAPPED SECONDARIES

TRANSFORMER CHARACTERISTICS AND PERFORMANCE

PERFORMANCE AND ANALYSIS OF A TRANSFORMER WITH A LAGGING POWER-FACTOR LOAD

PERFORMANCE AND ANALYSIS OF A TRANSFORMER WITH A LEADING POWER-FACTOR LOAD

CALCULATION OF TRANSFORMER VOLTAGE REGULATION

CALCULATION OF EFFICIENCY

ANALYSIS OF TRANSFORMER OPERATION AT MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY

CALCULATION OF ALL-DAY EFFICIENCY

SELECTION OF TRANSFORMER TO SUPPLY A CYCLIC LOAD

ANALYSIS OF TRANSFORMER UNDER SHORT-CIRCUIT CONDITIONS

CALCULATION OF PARAMETERS IN THE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF POWER TRANSFORMER BY USING THE OPEN-CIRCUIT AND SHORT-CIRCUIT TESTS

PERFORMANCE OF A STEP-UP AUTOTRANSFORMER (BUCK/BOOST TRANSFORMER IN BOOST MODE)

ANALYSIS OF A DELTA-WYE THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMER BANK USED AS A GENERATOR-STEP-UP TRANSFORMER

PERFORMANCE OF AN OPEN DELTA OR VEE-VEE SYSTEM

ANALYSIS OF A SCOTT-CONNECTED SYSTEM

BIBLIOGRAPHY

THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS

INTRODUCTION

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

DETERMINATION OF EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT PARAMETERS

PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS

PLUGGING

BRAKING

AUTOTRANSFORMER STARTING

RESISTANCE STARTING

REACTANCE STARTING

SERIES-PARALLEL STARTING

MULTISTEP STARTING

SPEED CONTROL

LINE-VOLTAGE CONTROL

FREQUENCY CONTROL

SELECTION OF MOTOR STARTING AND SPEED CONTROL

MOTOR SELECTION FOR A CONSTANT LOAD

MOTOR SELECTION FOR A VARIABLE LOAD

BIBLIOGRAPHY

SINGLE-PHASE MOTORS

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF A SINGLE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR DETERMINED FROM NO-LOAD AND LOCKED-ROTOR TESTS

TORQUE AND EFFICIENCY CALCULATIONS FOR SINGLE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

DETERMINATION OF INPUT CONDITIONS AND INTERNALLY DEVELOPED POWER FROM THE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT FOR SINGLE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS

DETERMINATION OF INPUT CONDITIONS AND INTERNALLY DEVELOPED POWER FROM THE APPROXIMATE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT FOR SINGLE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS

LOSS AND EFFICIENCY CALCULATIONS FROM THE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF THE SINGLE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

STARTING-TORQUE CALCULATION FOR A CAPACITOR MOTOR

STARTING TORQUE FOR A RESISTANCE-START SPLIT-PHASE MOTOR

SHADED-POLE MOTOR LOSSES AND EFFICIENCY

SYNCHRONOUS SPEED AND DEVELOPED TORQUE FOR A RELUCTANCE MOTOR

MAXIMUM VALUE OF AVERAGE MECHANICAL POWER FOR A RELUCTANCE MOTOR

BREAKDOWN TORQUE-SPEED RELATIONSHIP FOR A FRACTIONAL-HORSEPOWER MOTOR

FIELD- AND ARMATURE-WINDING DESIGN OF A REPULSION MOTOR

AC/DC TORQUE COMPARISON AND MECHANICAL POWER FOR A UNIVERSAL MOTOR

SINGLE-PHASE SERIES MOTOR (UNIVERSAL) EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AND PHASOR DIAGRAM

BIBLIOGRAPHY

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES

PER-UNIT BASE QUANTITIES

PER-UNIT DIRECT-AXIS REACTANCES

PER-UNIT QUADRATURE-AXIS REACTANCES

PER-UNIT OPEN-CIRCUIT TIME CONSTANTS

PER-UNIT SHORT-CIRCUIT TIME CONSTANTS

STEADY-STATE PHASOR DIAGRAM

GENERATOR-CAPABILITY CURVE

GENERATOR REGULATION

GENERATOR SHORT-CIRCUIT RATIO

POWER OUTPUT AND POWER FACTOR

GENERATOR EFFICIENCY

SYNCHRONIZING POWER COEFFICIENT

GENERATOR GROUNDING TRANSFORMER AND RESISTOR

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

BIBLIOGRAPHY

GENERATION OF ELECTRIC POWER

MAJOR PARAMETER DECISIONS

OPTIMUM ELECTRIC-POWER GENERATING UNIT

ANNUAL CAPACITY FACTOR

ANNUAL FIXED-CHARGE RATE

FUEL COSTS

AVERAGE NET HEAT RATES

CONSTRUCTION OF SCREENING CURVE

NONCOINCIDENT AND COINCIDENT MAXIMUM PREDICTED ANNUAL LOADS

REQUIRED PLANNING RESERVE MARGIN

RATINGS OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SYSTEMS

HYDROPOWER GENERATING STATIONS

LARGEST UNITS AND PLANT RATINGS USED IN GENERATING-SYSTEM EXPANSION PLANS

ALTERNATIVE GENERATING-SYSTEM EXPANSION PLANS

GENERATOR RATINGS FOR INSTALLED UNITS

OPTIMUM PLANT DESIGN

ANNUAL OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE COSTS VS. INSTALLED CAPITAL COSTS

THERMAL EFFICIENCY VS. INSTALLED CAPITAL AND/OR ANNUAL OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE COSTS

REPLACEMENT FUEL COST

CAPABILITY PENALTY

OVERHEAD TRANSMISSION LINES AND UNDERGROUND CABLES

INTRODUCTION

CONDUCTOR RESISTANCE

INDUCTANCE OF SINGLE TRANSMISSION LINE

INDUCTANCE OF TWO-WIRE TRANSMISSION LINE

INDUCTIVE REACTANCE OF TWO-WIRE TRANSMISSION LINE

INDUCTANCE OF STRANDED-CONDUCTOR TRANSMISSION LINE

INDUCTANCE OF THREE-PHASE TRANSMISSION LINES

PER-PHASE INDUCTIVE REACTANCE

INDUCTANCE OF SIX-CONDUCTOR LINE

INDUCTIVE REACTANCE OF SIX-CONDUCTOR LINE

INDUCTIVE REACTANCE OF BUNDLED TRANSMISSION LINE

INDUCTIVE REACTANCE DETERMINED BY USING TABLES

EFFECT OF MUTUAL FLUX LINKAGE

INDUCTIVE IMPEDANCES OF MULTICONDUCTOR TRANSMISSION LINES INCLUDING GROUND-RETURN CORRECTIONS

INDUCTIVE SEQUENCE IMPEDANCES OF THREE-PHASE TRANSMISSION LINES

INDUCTIVE REACTANCE OF CABLES IN DUCTS OR CONDUIT

INDUCTIVE IMPEDANCES OF MULTICONDUCTOR UNDERGROUND CABLES INCLUDING GROUND-RETURN CORRECTIONS

INDUCTIVE SEQUENCE IMPEDANCES OF THREE-PHASE UNDERGROUND CABLES

CAPACITANCE ASSOCIATED WITH TRANSMISSION LINES

CAPACITANCE OF TWO-WIRE LINE

CAPACITIVE REACTANCE OF TWO-WIRE LINE

CAPACITANCE OF THREE-PHASE LINES

CAPACITIVE REACTANCE OF THREE-PHASE LINES

CAPACITIVE SUSCEPTANCES OF MULTICONDUCTOR TRANSMISSION LINES

CAPACITIVE SEQUENCE SUSCEPTANCES OF THREE-PHASE TRANSMISSION LINES

CAPACITIVE SUSCEPTANCES ASSOCIATED WITH UNDERGROUND CABLES

CHARGING CURRENT AND REACTIVE POWER

TRANSMISSION-LINE MODELS FOR POWER-FREQUENCY STUDIES

MEDIUM TRANSMISSION-LINE MODELS FOR POWER-FREQUENCY STUDIES

LONG TRANSMISSION-LINE MODELS FOR POWER-FREQUENCY STUDIES

COMPLEX POWER

SURGE IMPEDANCE LOADING

ELECTRIC-POWER NETWORKS

POWER SYSTEM REPRESENTATION: GENERATORS, MOTORS, TRANSFORMERS, AND LINES

PER-UNIT METHOD OF SOLVING THREE-PHASE PROBLEMS

PER-UNIT BASES FOR SHORT-CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS

CHANGING THE BASE OF PER-UNIT QUANTITIES

WYE-DELTA AND DELTA-WYE CONVERSIONS

PER-UNIT REACTANCES OF THREE-WINDING TRANSFORMERS

CALCULATION OF COMPLEX POWERP+jQ

CHECKING VOLTAGE PHASE SEQUENCE WITH LAMPS

TOTAL POWER IN BALANCED THREE-PHASE SYSTEM

DIVISION OF LOAD BETWEEN TRANSFORMERS IN PARALLEL

PHASE SHIFT IN WYE-DELTA TRANSFORMER BANKS

CALCULATION OF POWER, APPARENT POWER, REACTIVE POWER, AND POWER FACTOR

THE POWER DIAGRAM: REAL AND APPARENT POWER

STATIC CAPACITORS USED TO IMPROVE POWER FACTOR

THREE-PHASE SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR USED TO CORRECT POWER FACTOR

POWER CALCULATION OF TWO-WINDING TRANSFORMER CONNECTED AS AN AUTOTRANSFORMER

TWO-WATTMETER METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE POWER OF A THREE-PHASE LOAD

OPEN-DELTA TRANSFORMER OPERATION

REAL AND REACTIVE POWER OF A THREE PHASE MOTOR IN PARALLEL WITH A BALANCED-DELTA LOAD

LOAD-FLOW ANALYSIS IN POWER SYSTEMS

INTRODUCTION

NOMENCLATURE

DEVELOPING POWER-FLOW EQUATIONS

POWER-FLOW SOLUTION

Example OF N-R SOLUTION

CONCLUDING REMARKS

POWER-SYSTEMS CONTROL

INTRODUCTION

POWER-SYSTEMS CONTROL

OBJECTIVES OF POWER-SYSTEMS CONTROL

CLASSIFICATION OF CONTROL TOOLS

ASSUMPTIONS UNDERLYING CONTROL DESIGN IN NORMAL OPERATION

HIERARCHICAL CONTROL IN THE REGULATED ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY

POWER-SYSTEMS CONTROL IN THE CHANGING INDUSTRY

CONCLUSIONS

SHORT-CIRCUIT COMPUTATIONS

TRANSFORMER REGULATION DETERMINED FROM SHORT-CIRCUIT TEST

TERMINAL VOLTAGE OF SINGLE-PHASE TRANSFORMER AT FULL LOAD

VOLTAGE AND CURRENT IN BALANCED THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS

THREE-PHASE SHORT-CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS

SUBTRANSIENT, TRANSIENT, AND SYNCHRONOUS SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS

POWER IN UNBALANCED THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS

DETERMINATION OF PHASE-SEQUENCE COMPONENTS

PROPERTIES OF PHASOR OPERATORS,j ANDa

COMPLEX POWER CALCULATED WITH SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

IMPEDANCES AND REACTANCES TO DIFFERENT SEQUENCES

LINE-TO-LINE SHORT-CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS

IMPEDANCE TO ZERO SEQUENCE FOR GENERATORS, TRANSFORMERS, AND TRANSMISSION LINES

LINE-TO-GROUND SHORT-CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS

SUBTRANSIENT-CURRENT CONTRIBUTION FROM MOTORS; CIRCUIT-BREAKER SELECTION

INDUCTION-MOTOR INRUSH CURRENT

INDUCTION-MOTOR SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT

BUS VOLTAGES CALCULATED BY MATRIX EQUATION AND INVERSION

POWER FLOW THROUGH A TRANSMISSION LINE; ABCD CONSTANTS

SYSTEM GROUNDING

SELECTION OF GROUNDING SYSTEM

RECOMMENDED GROUND RESISTANCE FOR SOLIDLY GROUNDED SYSTEM

FORTUITOUS CONSTRUCTION GROUNDS

CONCRETE PIER GROUNDS

POWER-SYSTEM PROTECTION

CURRENT TRANSFORMER CONNECTION AND SIZING

TIME OVERCURRENT PROTECTION OF RADIAL PRIMARY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION

STEP DISTANCE PROTECTION

SMALL MOTOR PROTECTION

SUMMARY

POWER-SYSTEM STABILITY

INTRODUCTION

DYNAMIC MODELING AND SIMULATION

TRANSIENT STABILITY ANALYSIS

SINGLE MACHINE-INFINITE BUS ILLUSTRATION

SELECTING TRANSIENT STABILITY DESIGN CRITERIA

TRANSIENT STABILITY AIDS

SELECTION OF AN UNDERFREQUENCY LOAD-SHEDDING SCHEME

STEADY-STATE STABILITY ANALYSIS

VOLTAGE STABILITY ANALYSIS

DATA PREPARATION FOR LARGE-SCALE DYNAMIC SIMULATION

MODEL VALIDATION

COGENERATION

INTRODUCTION

POWER OUTPUT DEVELOPED BY TURBINE STAGES

GENERATOR AND MECHANICAL LOSSES

BOILER-FEED AND CONDENSATE PUMP POWER CONSUMPTION

GROSS AND NET POWER OUTPUT

HEAT AND FUEL CONSUMPTION

HEAT RATE

FEEDWATER-HEATER HEAT BALANCE

GAS-TURBINE-BASED COGENERATION PLANT

GAS-TURBINE OUTPUT AND HEAT RATE IN COGENERATION-PLANT MODE

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF STCP AND GTCP

STATIONARY BATTERIES

SELECTION

RATINGS

C RATE

CALCULATING BATTERY END VOLTAGE FOR A DC SYSTEM

SIZING METHODS—CONSTANT CURRENT

SIZING METHODS—CONSTANT POWER

DETERMINING THE CURRENT OF A CONSTANT-POWER LOAD

NUMBER OF POSITIVE PLATES

DISCHARGE CHARACTERISTICS

USING FAN CURVES

USING S CURVES

USINGKFACTORS

VOLTAGE DEPRESSION—NICKEL-CADMIUM ON FLOAT CHARGE

NUMBER OF CELLS FOR A 48-VOLT SYSTEM

NUMBER OF CELLS FOR 125- AND 250-VOLT SYSTEMS

SELECTING NICKEL-CADMIUM CELLS

LOAD PROFILES

PROFILE FOR RANDOM LOAD

LOADS OCCURRING DURING FIRST MINUTE

SIZING BATTERY FOR SINGLE-LOAD PROFILE

SIZING BATTERY FOR MULTIPLE-LOAD PROFILE

AMPERE-HOUR CAPACITY

SIZING BATTERY FOR CONSTANT POWER

CALCULATING BATTERY SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT

CHARGER SIZE

RECHARGING NICKEL-CADMIUM BATTERIES—CONSTANT CURRENT

TEMPERATURE AND ALTITUDE DERATING FOR CHARGERS

CALCULATION OF THE SULFURIC ACID (H 2SO 4) CONTENT OF ELECTROLYTE

ELECTRIC ENERGY ECONOMIC METHODS

INTRODUCTION

REREGULATED ENVIRONMENT

THEORY OF THE FIRM

PRODUCTION COSTING

OPPORTUNITY COSTS AND RESOURCES

PROJECT SELECTION

UNCERTAINTY

LIGHTING DESIGN

INTRODUCTION

AVERAGE ILLUMINANCE

ILLUMINANCE AT A POINT

LIGHTING SYSTEM FOR AN INDOOR INDUSTRIAL AREA

LIGHTING SYSTEM FOR AN OUTDOOR AREA

ROADWAY LIGHTING SYSTEM