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Near Rings, Fuzzy Ideals and Graph Theory by Bhavanari Satyanarayana and Kuncham Syam Prasad

Preface Near rings, fuzzy ideals, and graph theory is a very fascinating course. Near ring theory has enormous applications in different subject areas such as digital computing, sequential mechanics, automata theory, graph theory, and combinatorics. The frst step toward near rings was axiomatic research done by Dickson in 1905. He exhibited that there do exist “felds with only one distributive law.” Near rings arise in a natural way. The set M(G) of all mappings of a group (G, ) into itself, with the usual addition and composition of mappings becomes…