Transformations in math occur when there is a change in position, shape, or size. When you are playing with a jigsaw puzzle, you could move a puzzle piece by sliding it, flipping it, or turning it. Each of these moves is a transformation of the puzzle piece.

In a transformation, the original figure is a **preimage** and the resulting figure is an **image**.

A transformation is an isometry if the preimage and the image are congruent.

## Types of transformations in math

**Translation**

A translation or slide is an isometry in which all points of a figure move the same distance and in the same direction.

**Reflection**

A reflection is an isometry in which the preimage and the image have opposite orientations. In other words, the image appears backward.

**Rotation**

A rotation is an isometry in which a figure has been rotated or turned around a point called center of rotation.

**Dilation**

A dilation is a transformation whose preimage and image are similar. In general, a dilation is not an isometry. A dilation could be an enlargement or a reduction.